Tadlock Cowan Analyst in Natural Resources and Rural
Kristina Alexander Legislative Attorney
Corporation, the developer of herbicide-tolerant varieties of genetically
engineered (GE) alfalfa and sugar beet (called Roundup Ready alfalfa and
Roundup Ready sugar beet), petitioned USDA’s Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service (APHIS) for deregulation of the items. Deregulation of
GE plants is the final step in the commercialization process. Monsanto filed
a petition for deregulation of its GE alfalfa in 2004, and for GE sugar beets
As part of the deregulation process, APHIS conducts an environmental review
under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to determine whether
any significant environmental impacts will result from deregulation. APHIS
conducted a limited review, known as an environmental assessment (EA), of
the GE plants to assess the impacts of growing them on a commercial scale. APHIS
issued a “finding of no significant impact” (FONSI) for GE alfalfa and GE sugar
Lawsuits subsequently challenged the adequacy of the EAs in separate actions.
Both courts held that APHIS should have prepared a more analytically
thorough environmental impact statement (EIS) for the deregulation
decisions. Separately, the courts directed APHIS to complete an EIS on the
effects of deregulating GE alfalfa and GE sugar beets.
The court in the GE alfalfa case halted planting of the genetically modified
seed, and nullified the deregulation. The injunction was appealed to the
U.S. Supreme Court, which held that the injunction was too broad and that
the court should have considered partial deregulation. The Supreme Court
did not discuss the appropriateness of the environmental review. In the meantime, APHIS
completed the environmental review directed by the lower court, releasing a
final EIS for GE alfalfa on December 16, 2010. On January 27, 2011,
Secretary Vilsack announced that APHIS was granting GE alfalfa full
deregulation. On January 5, 2012, a federal district court rejected claims
that the deregulation violated the law.
The court in the GE sugar beet case did not formally prohibit planting sugar
beets, but it voided APHIS’s deregulation decision in August 2010, undoing
the five-year-old approval of GE sugar beets, from which nearly half of
U.S. sugar is derived. APHIS issued four permits authorizing seedling
production that would not allow flowering or transplanting without additional authorization.
In November 2010, a judge ordered those seedlings pulled from the ground, holding
that APHIS had violated NEPA in issuing the permits. The Ninth Circuit
temporarily halted that decision in December 2010, ultimately holding in
February 2011 that the seedlings did not have to be removed.
APHIS announced on February 4, 2011, that the agency would partially deregulate
GE sugar beet root crop production, but would continue full
regulation for sugar beet seed crop production while the EIS was
prepared. The final EIS for GE sugar beets was published June 1, 2012. On July
20, 2012, APHIS issued its determination of non-regulated status for GE
sugar beets. Provisions to amend APHIS’s regulatory procedures under the
Plant Protection Act have been introduced in the House farm bill (H.R.
6083) and in the House Agriculture appropriations bill (H.R. 5973).
The cases of GE alfalfa and sugar beets highlight continuing policy questions
about the adequacy of APHIS’s deregulation protocol, particularly
regarding the environmental review process. In their suits against APHIS,
plaintiffs cited the EAs’ failure to assess the impact on non-GE alfalfa growers
(particularly those who export to Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) and on producers of commercial
table beet and chard seeds (species that can cross-pollinate with GE sugar
Date of Report: December 18, 2012
Number of Pages: 19 Order Number: R41395 Price: $29.95
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